Scutellaria Species Information (M thru R)

~~~Alphabetically grouped for faster access~~~

A - F          G - L          M - R          S - Z

Individual Species M to R

Key to Abbreviations:
REF = Missouri Botanical Garden Reference Link
( ) = Synonyms in smaller bold type --->There may be additional information under the synonym name listing!
Botanical Glossary from GardenWeb:  (excellent searchable glossary)
Plant Anatomy Tutorial:  (a useful site that defines and identifies vegetative plant parts)
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Scutellaria macer Epling, 1939 REF Violet flowers 15 mm long, 30 to 40 mm tall with sparsely hairy stems on the angles, otherwise glabrous plant.  Leaves variable in size, generally rhomboid 10 to 30 mm long by 6 to 18 mm wide, shallowly crenate, and only a few coarse hairs.  Mexico.

Scutellaria macrantha Fisch., 1827 (Scutellaria baicalensis) REF Blue flowers.  Native to Siberia and northern China.  See the Scutellaria baicalensis listing for more links.
Scutellaria macrodonta Hand.-Mazz., 1936 REF
Scutellaria macrosiphon C.Y. Wu, 1977 REF

Scutellaria maekawae Purple flowers 20 to 22 mm long on 2 to 8 cm spikes, sparsely hairy plant with 7 to 20 cm stems.  Leaves glabrous except a few hairs on margins, ovate to heart shaped 10 to 30 mm long by 15 to 25 mm wide with very blunt tip, obtuse toothed and purple underside.  Blooms June in Japan.

Scutellaria maekawae var. pubescens Same form but densely hairy
Scutellaria mairei H. Lév., 1912 (Scutellaria hebeclada) REF
Scutellaria malvaefolia Kunth REF

Scutellaria maxonii Leonard, 1927 REF Red flowers 26 to 30 mm long on racemes 2 to 4 cm long, about 1 meter tall on floppy trailing stems which are hairy and less so in the upper parts.  Leaves ovate 5 to 7 cm long by 3 to 4 cm wide, short pointed tip and rounded base,  margins smooth to just slightly sinuate, glabrous leaf surfaces except for vein hairs which are thicker on the underside which is also paler, petioles 15 to 30 mm long.  Panama.

Scutellaria medullifera Sun ex C.H. Hu, 1966 (Scutellaria axilliflora var. medullifera) REF
Scutellaria meehanioides C.Y. Wu, 1977 REF
Scutellaria meehanioides var. meehanioides REF
Scutellaria meehanioides var. paucidentata C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977 REF
Scutellaria megaphylla C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977 REF

Scutellaria mellichampii Small, 1903 REF Violet blue flowers 25 mm long, 31 to 61 cm tall,  blooms June-July in sandy woods.  Finely downy petioles with smooth leaves, the blades ovate with scalloped edges, 75 mm long by 35 mm wide.  Flowering panicle 5 to 15 cm long.  Georgia and South Carolina.  Often associated with S. altamaha.  Also see S. arenicola.

Scutellaria mesostegia Juz. REF
Scutellaria mexicana (Torr.) A.J. Paton, 1990 REF
Scutellaria microdasys Juz. REF
Scutellaria microflora F.P. Metcalf, 1934 (Scutellaria indica var. parvifolia) REF

Scutellaria microphylla Benth.; Leonard, 1927 REF1-REF2 Violet flowers 8 to 12 mm long, 25 to 35 cm tall, blooms April-May on prairies and open ground.  Small ovate bladed leaf foliage, l0 to 15 mm long and clothed with soft hairs which commonly bear glands.  Black seeds, covered with tiny mosaic like projections.  Considered a smaller leaf version of S. drummondii.  Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Mexico.

Scutellaria microphysa Juz. REF
Scutellaria microviolacea C.Y. Wu, 1977 REF

Scutellaria minor Huds., 1762 REF Dull pink purple flowers with almost straight tube 6 to 7 mm long, 15 cm tall, blooms July-October in bogs or wetlands.  Slender multi-branched glabrous structure.  The leaves are egg shaped often very slightly toothed at the base with one to three pairs of undifferentiated teeth.

Scutellaria minor var. indica Benth., 1848 (Scutellaria barbata) REF
Scutellaria misissipiana M. Martens, 1841 REF

Scutellaria moiciniana Benth., 1834 REF Large red upward curving flowers 45 mm long on terminal racemes 2 to 3 cm long, large straggling plant with slender branches, clothed with fine upward curling hairs.  Leaves nearly glabrous, ovate elliptical 8 to 12 cm long by 4 to 7 cm wide on petioles 15 to 25 mm long.  Margins sinuate serrate.  Mexico, Vera Cruz.

Scutellaria mollifolia C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977 REF
Scutellaria mongolica K. Sobol. (Scutellaria grandiflora) REF
Scutellaria moniliorrhiza Kom., 1907 REF

Scutellaria montana Chapm., 1878 (Scutellaria serrata var. montana) REF Blue and white flowers 26 to 35 mm long on 10 to 15 cm racemes, 20 to 60 cm tall, blooms May-June.  Gland tipped hairs on leaves and square stems.  Ovate to lanceolate oblong leaves with toothed (serrate saw toothed blunt teeth with scalloped effect) edges.  The leaf is 50 to 80 mm long by 30 to 40 mm wide on petioles up to 10 to 15 mm long.  Seeds brown.  May be confused with S. serrata which has slightly broader ovate leaves and slightly smaller blooms.  The skullcap's habitat is dry soil on rocky slopes in undisturbed mature oak and hickory woodlands where trees range from 70 to over 200 years old.  An endangered species found in Georgia and Tennessee.

Scutellaria mulleri B.L. Turner REF
Scutellaria multicaulis Boiss., 1846 REF
Scutellaria multicaulis ssp. multicaulis REF

Scutellaria multiflora Benth., 1832 REF Rose and blue flowers 20 mm long on 10 to 20 cm racemes, almost 1 meter tall, upper stems clothed in short and long hairs.  Leaves broadly ovate, 6 to 7 cm long by 5 to 6 cm wide, margins irregularly sinuate dentate, tapering pointed tip and rounded base, surfaces mostly glabrous with hairs mostly in veins with pale underside, petioles 2 to 4 cm long.  Mexico.

Scutellaria multiglandulosa (Kearn.) Small REF Pale blue to white flowers 20 to 23 mm long, 15 to 30 cm tall with one or two capitate glandular stems (usually unbranched) arising from a short rhizome, blooms April-July in dry pine lands, bog type fields, and peat laden terrain or shores.  Wide lanceolate leaves 26 mm long by 13 mm wide with gland tipped hairs on both surfaces, smooth edged to slightly crenate near the finely downy petioles which is nearly as long as the leaf blade.  Internodes at 23 mm.  Seeds dark brown.  Known from Florida and Georgia.

Scutellaria mummulariaefolia Blue to rose colored flowers 11 mm long, mat forming rhizome plant with stems rising 3 to 15 cm tall covered with short hairs.  Leaves rounded ovate, abruptly narrow at the base, petioles less than 2 mm or sessile, smooth margins and hairy surfaces.  Seeds black. Most southern tip of South America, mainly Argentina, Chili and the Falkland Islands.

Scutellaria muramatsui Purple flowers 15 to 18 mm long on 3 to 5 cm spikes, 10 to 30 cm ascending stems.  Leaves deltoid ovate to heart shaped 20 to 35 mm long by 10 to 25 mm wide, scattered undulate toothed and sparse short hairs topside (only on veins underside).  May-June in Japan.

Scutellaria muriculata Epling REF Violet blue flowers 11.5 mm long, 20 to 30 cm tall with ovate to deltoid leaves 10 to 15 mm long on petioles 7 to 8 mm long.  Southern tip of Texas. -

Scutellaria nana A. Gray, 1876 REF White to cream to pale yellow, flowers to 16 to 20 mm long which may appear with tints of orange to magenta streaked across the hood of the upper lip as many variant color populations (rarely blue) exist, 5 to 15 cm tall and mat forming, blooms May-June at lower elevations and June- August above 1250 meters elevation in porous open soils forming tuberous rhizomes, white in color, up to 6 mm in diameter.  Has silver to gray green leaf blades 10 to 15 mm long with spathulate shapes (widest between middle and tip up to 12 mm diameter) and dense growth habit from petioles 1 to 5 mm long.  Flowers solitary and typically erect.  Seeds black and strongly verrucose.  Western Nevada, Central to southern Oregon and California.  Several locations known on oregon highway between Denio Junction Nevada and French Glenn Oregon, as well as east of Eagle Lake California, all having pure white to cream colored flowers.

Scutellaria nana var. nana REF  Found in Ada, Owhyhee and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho.

Scutellaria nana var. sapphirina Barneby, 1947 (Scutellaria sapphirina) REF Royal blue flowers on erect stems.  Low growing carpet forming growth 5 cm high and 30 cm wide.  Found growing in dry granitic or calcareous scree, endemic to the Great Basin area of Nye County, Nevada and also found in Utah (zone 4).  Commonly referred to as White Pine skullcap, this species is now classified as Scutellaria sapphirina (Barneby) Olmstead.

Scutellaria navicularis Juz. (Scutellaria chenopodiifolia) REF
Scutellaria nepetoides M. Pop. ex Juz. REF
Scutellaria nephrophylla Rech. f. REF

Scutellaria nervosa Pursh, 1814 REF Pale blue flowers about 10 mm long, 21 to 51 cm tall spreading by slender rhizomes, blooms May-July.  Has weak slender smoother stems bearing short broad leaves, deltoid to ovate, sessile except for some lower leaves, a few crenate to dentate notches appearing in the margins and average 35 mm length x 20 mm width.  The veins branch from the midrib along which inward curving hairs may be occasionally found on the surface.  Flowers arise singularly from pedicels.   Seeds are deep brown or nearly black, covered with peg like outgrowths, usually banded.  Found in moist woods and thickets.  New Jersey to Ontario and Iowa southward to North Carolina and Tennessee.

Scutellaria nervosa fo. alba Steyerm., 1952 REF
Scutellaria nervosa var. ambigua (Nutt.) Fernald, 1945 (Scutellaria ambigua) REF
Scutellaria nervosa var. calvifolia Fernald, 1945 REF
Scutellaria nervosa var. nervosa REF
Scutellaria nervosa fo. ternata Penland, 1924 REF
Scutellaria nervosa var. typica Fernald, 1945 REF
Scutellaria nevadensis Eastw., 1903 REF
Scutellaria nevskii Juz. & Vved. REF
Scutellaria nicaraguensis Sessé & Moc., 1894 REF
Scutellaria nigricans C.Y. Wu, 1977 REF
Scutellaria nigrocardia C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977  REF
Scutellaria nipponica Franch. & Sav., 1875 (Scutellaria dependens) REF

Scutellaria novae-zelandiae Small white flowers drooping downwards on racemes, small sub shrub to 30 cm tall with small leaves, blooms in summer and can be grown in the open or in semi shaded area.  Once established it is drought tolerant and easily grown from cuttings.  A rare endemic species found in the Nelson Marlborough area of the South Island of New Zealand.

Scutellaria novorossica Juz. (Scutellaria orientalis ssp. novorossica) REF

Scutellaria nummulariaefolia Hook. f. REF Blue to rose colored flowers 10 to 11 mm long, mat forming and creeping, rhizome bearing stems 3 to 15 cm tall with short spreading hairs over entire plant.  Flowers solitary in upper axils borne on pedicels 2 to 3 mm long.  Leaves round to egg shaped 5 to 15 mm across.  Argentina, Chile and Falkland Islands.  Black seeds.

Scutellaria oaxacana Greenm., 1912 REF Violet flowers 17 mm long on crowded 3 to 6 cm racemes, 15 to 25 cm tall on simple or base branched stems.  Leaves and stems densely hairy.  Leaves rounded ovate 15 to 20 mm long on long petioles of 20 to 30 mm.  Margins irregular shallowly crenate serrate.  Seeds brown, tessellated in pattern.  Mexico.

Scutellaria oblongifolium Baker, 1900 REF
Scutellaria obtusifolia Hemsl., 1890 REF
Scutellaria obtusifolia var. obtusifolia REF
Scutellaria obtusifolia var. trinervata (Vaniot) C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977 (Scutellaria trinervata, Scutellaria vaniotiana) REF
Scutellaria ocellata Juz. (Scutellaria alexeenkoi) REF

Scutellaria ocmulgee Small, 1898 REF Violet blue flowers 23 mm long, 60 cm tall with stems clothed throughout with spreading capitate glands and curled hairs in the upper parts.  Leaves rounded to ovate 50 to 65 mm diameter, crenate, and hairy borne on petioles 20 to 25 mm long.  Threatened species in Georgia.

Scutellaria ocymoides (Kunth) Epling, 1936 REF Scarlet flowers 12 to 14 mm long, shrubby plant with slender marginate branches, purple tinted with short hairs.  Leaves 3 to 4 cm long, ovate to rounded, nosed tip and rounded base, margins convex and serrate crenate, surfaces glabrous except for vein hairs on undersides, petioles 5 to 8 mm long.  Seeds angled.  Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Argentina.

Scutellaria oldhamii Miq., 1867 (Scutellaria dependens) REF
Scutellaria oligodonta Juz., 1951 (Scutellaria paulsenii) REF
Scutellaria oligophlebia Merr. & Chun ex H. W. Li, 1977 REF
Scutellaria omeiensis C.Y. Wu, 1977 REF
Scutellaria omeiensis var. omeiensis REF
Scutellaria omeiensis var. serratifolia C. Y. Wu & S. Chow, 1977 REF
Scutellaria orbicularis Bunge REF
Scutellaria oreophila Grossh. (Scutellaria orientalis ssp. oreophila) REF

Scutellaria orichalcea Donn. Sm., 1889 REF White flowers 19 to 24 mm long with lower lip having purple markings on racemes 2 to 5 cm long, 15 to 30 cm tall with slender stems covered with short curling hairs.  Leaves elliptical ovate with smooth margins to broadly lanceolate with coarsely sinuate dentate margins.  Both leaf types sparsely hairy with purple undersides and leaf sizes range from 20 to 80 mm long to 10 to 25 cm wide.  Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala and Costa Rica.

Scutellaria orientalis L. REF Yellow flowers 15 to 30 mm long (sometimes longer) with lower lip often tinted red (variable in color and the red flush can sometimes appear on the upper lip).  Flowering forms can appear which are almost entirely yellow, purple, pink or red.  Height 10 cm on a spreading plant having decumbent stems up to 30 cm long, blooms in early summer and requires excellent drainage in a slightly alkaline soil.  Hardy to about Zone 5, especially in arid regions.  Propagate in the spring from seed.  Woody base with generally hairy stems.  The silver green ovate leaves are prominently toothed.  Scutellaria orientalis has at least 15 subspecies with wild forms ranging from China to Spain and Northwest Africa.  Very widespread in Turkey with many sub species.  Scutellaria orientalis ssp. pinnatifida is one of the more attractive sup spieces and very well suited for smaller size gardens.

Scutellaria orientalis ssp. alpina Mat forming with ovate, deeply crenate leaves.  From Turkey on the Elgaz Dag.
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. amphichlora (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria amphichlora) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. araratica (Grossh.) Fed. (Scutellaria araratica) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. araxensis (Grossh.) Fed. (Scutellaria araxensis) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. artvinensis (Grossh.) Fed. (Scutellaria artvinensis) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. bicolor  Bingol, Diyarbakyr, Elazig, Erzurum, Nigde, Sivas and Tunceli regions of Turkey.
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. carica  Found in the Aydin region of Turkey.
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. daghestanica (Grossh.) Fed. (Scutellaria daghestanica) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. darriensis (Grossh.) Fed. (Scutellaria darriensis) REF
Scutellaria orientalis var. demnatensis (Cosson) Batt. REF
Scutellaria orientalis var. glandulosi - Found in the Agri, Denizli, Kayseri and Van regions of Turkey.
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. granulosa (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria granulosa) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. grossheimiana (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria grossheimiana) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. hausskne  Found in the Diyarbakyr, Elazig and Mardin regions of Turkey.
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. heterochroa(Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria heterochroa) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. hirtella (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria hirtella) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. hispanica(Boiss.) Greuter & Burdet REF
Scutellaria orientalis var. hispanica Boiss. REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. hypopolia (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria hypopolia) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. karjaginii (Grossh.) Fed. (Scutellaria karjaginii) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. leptostegia (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria leptostegia) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. novorossica(Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria novorossica) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. oreophila (Grossh.) Fed. (Scutellaria oreophila) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. oschtenica (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria oschtenica) REF

Scutellaria orientalis ssp. pectinata Dwarf semi-prostrate growth having short, pinnatisect grey-green pubescent leaves about 1 to 2 cm long.  Bicolored orange maroon corolla with interior yellow throat and lower lip.   Some forms of this species are entirely pure yellow with only very faint orange maroon markings on the upper lip (if at all). Flowers appear on compact racemes.  Found in the Ankara, Balikesir, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Nevsehir, Sivas and Trabzon regions of Turkey.  A highly recommended species for the rock garden.

Scutellaria orientalis ssp. pinnatifida J.R. Edm. REF Light Yellow flowers on finely cut leaf foilage. Native to Turkey.
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. platystegia (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria platystegia) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. polyodon (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria polyodon) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. porphyro  Found in the Siirt region of Turkey.
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. prilipkoana (Grossh.) Fed. (Scutellaria prilipkoana) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. raddeana (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria raddeana) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. rhomboidalis (Grossh.) Fed. (Scutellaria rhomboidalis) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. santolin  Found in the Erzincan, Gaziantep and Nevsehir regions of Turkey.
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. sedelmeyerae (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria sedelmeyerae) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. sevanensis (Sosn. ex Grossh.) Fed. (Scutellaria sevanensis) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. sintenis (sintenisii?)  Found in the Burdur, Erzincan and Sivas regions of Turkey.
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. sosnovskyi (Takht.) Fed. (Scutellaria sosnovskyi) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. stevenii (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria stevenii) REF
Scutellaria orientalis ssp. tatianae (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria tatianae) REF

Scutellaria orientalis ssp. taurica (Juz.) Fed. (Scutellaria taurica) REF  Flowers with a peach toned upper lip and creamy yellow colored lower lip.  Foliage is similar to Scutellaria alpina with slightly more compact growth.  Usually blooms 2 or 3 times each season if flowering stems are removed.  This species will easily hybridize with any of the above listed Scutellaria orientalis sup species, creating many additional choice flower color combinations.  It also appears to hybridized easily with Scutellaria tournefortii.

Scutellaria orizabensis Epling, 1939 REF Violet flowers 20 to 21 mm long on 3 to 8 cm racemes, 20 to 40 cm tall with stems covered in a combination of small curled hairs progressing towards long straight hairs further up.  Leaves rounded ovate 25 to 45 mm long, blunt tip and cordate base, margins crenate with occasions hairs on both surfaces with 20 to 25 mm petioles.  Mexico.

Scutellaria ornata Leonard, 1927 REF
Scutellaria orthocalyx Hand.-Mazz., 1934 REF
Scutellaria orthotricha C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977 REF
Scutellaria oschtenica Juz. (Scutellaria orientalis ssp. oschtenica) REF
Scutellaria ossethica Charadze REF
Scutellaria ovalifolia Pers. REF
Scutellaria ovalifolia ssp. hirsuta (Short) Epling, 1942 (Scutellaria hirsuta) REF

Scutellaria ovalifolia var. hirsuta (Short) Fernald, 1942 (Scutellaria hirsuta) REF Similar to var. mollis, but with straight coarse hairs with deltoid leaves the more prevalent form.  More common in areas along broad regions of the Ohio River spreading much further south than north along the river.

Scutellaria ovalifolia var. mollis Violet blue flowers 14 to 21 mm long, 25 to 40 cm tall, stems finely hairy (upward curving) progressing to capitate glandular further up.  Leaves deltoid near the base progressing to rhomboid oval and slightly crenate further up (also ranging in size 15 to 30 mm long with same length petioles near the base to 50 mm long by 30 mm wide further up on petioles 5 to 15 mm long).  Leave hairy, more so on the upper surface and widely spaced internodes 70 to 90 mm. Flowers in racemes 3 to 8 cm long.  Coarsely textured dark brown seeds.  From Maryland south to regions east of the Mississippi River as well as Georgia, N. and S. Carolina, toward Virginia.

Scutellaria ovalifolia ssp. ovalifolia REF
Scutellaria ovalifolia var. ovalifolia REF

Scutellaria ovata Hill REF Blue violet flowers 13 to 25 mm long with a whitish lip on 10 cm racemes, 30 to 76 cm tall, blooms late May to early July nd spreads by tubers and rhizomes.  Hairy stems, the hairs gland tipped in some forms.  The leaf blades are ovate, up to 10 cm long, indented at the base, scalloped or blunt toothed, hairy or downy on the under surface on long petioles.  Seeds brown, often obscurely banded near the base, with blunt to sharp conical pegs.  Maryland to Minnesota and southward to South Carolina, eastern and central Texas and Mexico.  Grows more abundant on westward facing terrain and often associated with limestone or calcium bearing rocks. Subspecies pseudoarguta listed as threatened in West Virginia.

Scutellaria ovata ssp. arguta Epling
Scutellaria ovata ssp. bracteata (Bentham) Epling REF
Scutellaria ovata var. calcarea (Epl.) Gleason REF
Scutellaria ovata ssp. cuthbertii Epling
Scutellaria ovata ssp. lateriflora Epling
Scutellaria ovata ssp. mexicana Epling REF
Scutellaria ovata var. mississippiensis Epling REF
Scutellaria ovata var. ovata REF
Scutellaria ovata ssp. pseudoarguta Epling
Scutellaria ovata ssp. pseudovenosa Epling
Scutellaria ovata ssp. rugosa (A.W. Wood) Epling, 1942 (Scutellaria rugosa) REF
Scutellaria ovata var. rugosa (A.W. Wood) Fernald, 1945 (Scutellaria rugosa) REF Sprawling growth subspecies.  Arkansas and West Virginia.
Scutellaria ovata ssp. rupestris Epling, 1942 REF
Scutellaria ovata ssp. saxatilis Epling
Scutellaria ovata ssp. venosa Epling
Scutellaria ovata var. versicolor (Nutt.) Fernald, 1942 (Scutellaria versicolor) REF
Scutellaria ovata ssp. virginiana Epling
Scutellaria oxyphylla Juz. (Scutellaria supina) REF
Scutellaria oxystegia Juz. REF
Scutellaria pachyrrhiza Pax & K. Hoffm., 1922 (Scutellaria hypericifolia var. hypericifolia) REF
Scutellaria pacifica Juz. REF
Scutellaria pallida M. Bieb. (Scutellaria albida) REF

Scutellaria pallidiflora Epling, 1939 REF White flowers 16 mm long on naked racemes 5 to 8 cm long, stems with tiny spreading hairs becoming long and glandular further up.  Leaves broadly ovate 50 to 55 mm long by 30 to 35 mm wide, rounded tip and base, smooth margin and sparsely hairy surfaces, petioles 15 to 25 mm long.  Central Mexico.

Scutellaria pamirica Juz. REF
Scutellaria paradoxa Galushko REF
Scutellaria parvifolia Koidz., 1924 (Scutellaria indica var. parvifolia) REF
Scutellaria parvifolia var. vulgaris H. Hara, 1938 (Scutellaria indica var. parvifolia) REF

Scutellaria parvula Michx., 1803 REF Blue flowers 8 to 10 mm long with darker spots on the lower lip, 8 to 31 cm tall, blooms May-July.  Slim horizontal square stems are swollen at intervals into tubers.  From these rise the often and occasionally gland tipped hairy stems, which bear narrow ovate leaves less than an inch long, usually lacking teeth, on short petioles.  Flowers arises from pedicels, slightly above the middle of the leaf.  Calyx glandular pubescent.  Seeds are dark brown covered with peg like outgrowths and often banded.  Found in dry woods and on prairies associated with mainly calcareous soils.  North Dakota to Oklahoma.  Also see S. australis and S. leonardi.

Scutellaria parvula var. ambigua (Nutt.) Fernald, 1901 (Scutellaria ambigua) REF
Scutellaria parvula var. australis Fassett, 1937 REF
Scutellaria parvula var. leonardii (Epling) Fernald, 1945 (Scutellaria leonardii) REF
Scutellaria parvula var. mollis A. Gray, 1878 REF
Scutellaria parvula var. parvula (Scutellaria parvula) REF
Scutellaria parzewalskii Juz. REF
Scutellaria paucifolia Baker, 1895 REF
Scutellaria paulsenii Briq. (Scutellaria oligodonta) REF
Scutellaria pectinata Small magenta purple flowers
Scutellaria pedicularis Fernald, 1900 REF
Scutellaria pekinensis Maxim., 1859 REF
Scutellaria pekinensis var. grandiflora C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977 REF
Scutellaria pekinensis var. pekinensis (Scutellaria indica var. pekinensis, Scutellaria planipes) REF
Scutellaria pekinensis var. purpureicaulis (Migo) C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977 (Scutellaria japonica var. purpureicaulis) REF

Scutellaria pekinensis var. transitra (Makino) H. Hara ex H. W. Li, 1977 (Scutellaria transitra, Scutellaria ussuriensis var. transitra) REF Main difference is the upwardly curved minute white hairs throughout the plant.

Scutellaria pekinensis var. ussuriensis (Regel) Hand.-Mazz., 1939 (Scutellaria dentata, Scutellaria japonica var. ussuriensis, Scutellaria transitra var. ussuriensis, Scutellaria ussuriensis var. typica) REF Pale purple flowers 16 mm long in terminal spikes 3 to 6 cm long, 24 to 40 cm tall with slender glabrous stems (except for hairs from internodes).  Leaves thinly membranous, broadly deltoid ovate 20 to 40 mm long by 15 to 25 mm wide heart shaped.  Flowers gently curved upwards with gray to fulvous seeds.

Scutellaria perilomia Epling, 1936 (Scutellaria scutellarioides) REF Small red flowers 7 to 8 mm long, shrubby sprawling plant about 1 meter tall with slender marginate purple tinted stems covered with short hairs.  Leaves 3 to 4 cm long, ovate to rounded, nosed tip and rounded base, margins convex and serrate crenate, surfaces glabrous except for hairy veins on the underside, petioles 8 to 12 mm long.  Seeds angled.  Peru and Ecuador.

Scutellaria petenensis Lundell, 1945 REF
Scutellaria phyllostachya Juz. (Scutellaria adsurgens) REF

Scutellaria physocalyx Regel & Schmalh. REF Spikes of deep yellow flowers with pale rose labia, dense cushions of blue tinted leaves.  Mt. Cimtarga area, Hissar, Tadjikistan - 3400m elevation on scree.  Also found near Alai Range, Kirghizia & Tadjikistan - 4200m.

Scutellaria picta Juz. REF
Scutellaria pilosa Michx., 1803 REF
Scutellaria pilosa var. hirsuta (Short) A. Gray, 1878 (Scutellaria hirsuta) REF
Scutellaria pingbienensis C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977 REF
Scutellaria planipes Nakai & Kitag., 1934 (Scutellaria pekinensis var. pekinensis) REF

Scutellaria platensis Speg., 1901 REF Blue to pallid flowers 5 to 6 mm long, 15 to 30 cm tall.   Glabrous plant with internodes 1 to 5 cm long, leaf blades deltoid to ovate, length gradually diminished upwards and ranging 10 to 30 mm.  Leaf edges are bluntly serrated with 6 to 12 teeth and on petioles 3 to 15 mm long.  Seeds appear dark and finely granular.  Native to Argentina.

Scutellaria platystegia Juz. (Scutellaria orientalis ssp. platystegia) REF
Scutellaria playfairii Kudô, 1929 (Scutellaria tashiroi var. playfairi) REF
Scutellaria playfairi var. megalantha S. Suzuki & Hosoki REF
Scutellaria playfairii var. playfairii(Scutellaria procumbens var. tomentosa) REF
Scutellaria playfairii var. procumbens (Ohwi) C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977 (Scutellaria procumbens) REF
Scutellaria poecilantha Nevski ex Juz. REF
Scutellaria polymorpha Ham., 1832 REF
Scutellaria polyodon Juz. (Scutellaria orientalis ssp. polyodon) REF Probably yellow flowers.
Scutellaria polyphylla Juz. REF
Scutellaria polytricha Juz. REF

Scutellaria pontica C. Koch REF Magenta (grape-pink) flowers, 10 cm tall with prostrate spreading habit, forming a dark green mat, red tinted  foliage in the winter.  Zone 5. Turkey.

Scutellaria popovii Vved. REF Prostrate growth about 5 to 10 cm high wiht dark green foliage.  Large cream colored flowers with violet lower lip.  Kyrgystan, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzskij Ala Tau, Tjuz Achsu around 2800m elevation.

Scutellaria potosina Brandeg. REF Deep violet blue flowers, with hair tubes, 9 to 18 mm long, 20 to 35 cm tall, blooms April-August on hills and along streams.  Numerous stems grow from a woody crown similar to S. resinosa.  The leaf blades appear on petioles 4 mm long, are ovate with a blunt tip 10 to 25 mm long. .  The plant is clothed with two kinds of hairs, long hairs which are often tipped with resinous glands, and shorter non glandular hairs.  Seeds black, evenly and closely tubercular, but more coarsely than S. microphylla, S. resinosa, or S. wrightii.  Subspecies include var. platyphylla, var. parviflora, and var. potosina as discussed in Carl Epling's referenced publication.  Arizona, southwest Texas and Mexico.  Named for San Luis Potosi in Mexico where it was first collected.

Scutellaria potosina ssp. parviflora REF
Scutellaria potosina ssp. platyphylla REF
Scutellaria prilipkoana Grossh. (Scutellaria orientalis ssp. prilipkoana) REF
Scutellaria procumbens Ohwi, 1934 (Scutellaria playfairi var. procumbens) REF
Scutellaria procumbens var. tomentosa Ohwi, 1935 (Scutellaria playfairi var. playfairi, Scutellaria tashiroi var. tomentosa) REF

Scutellaria prostrata Jacquem. ex Benth., 1835 REF Cream to yellow flowers 25 mm long with slight indigo mauve to purple tinge on the hood of the upper lip, dwarf multi-branched plant spreading 20 cm, 5 cm tall, blooms June -September at 2400 to 4500 meters elevation on open scree slopes forming loose mats.  The lower flower lip is broad and triangular.  Leaves blades are slightly ovate and deeply coarsely toothed, softly hairy on both sides, forming a grayish green mat.

Scutellaria przewalskii Juz., 1951 REF

Scutellaria pseudocaerulea Briq., 1900 REF Violet flowers 19 mm long on 5 to 20 cm racemes, 40 to 50 cm tall with slightly curved hairy stems.  Leaves 5 to 7 cm long, ovate to deltoid with crenate margins, sparsely hairy surfaces, on 15 to 30 mm petioles.  Eastern Mexico.

Scutellaria pseudocoleus Fern. Alonso, 1990 REF

Scutellaria pseudoserrata Perhaps a natural hybrid of S. serrata, S. montana, and/or S. ovalifolia.  Most similar to S. montana but has glabrous foliage and elongated internodes (see S. montana).  Alabama, N. Carolina, and Tennessee.

Scutellaria pseudotenax C.Y. Wu, 1977 (Scutellaria pseudotenax fo. brevipetala) REF
Scutellaria pseudotenax fo. brevipetala C.Y. Wu & C. Chen, 1977 (Scutellaria pseudotenax) REF
Scutellaria pseudotenax fo. pseudotenax REF

Scutellaria punctata Blue flowers 20 to 25 mm long, 31 to 122 cm tall,  blooms June-September.  Ovate leaves, contrasting glabrous upper surface with white glandular hairs on the lower side, the stem and corolla are hairy, but often lack glands.  The narrowly ovate leaf blades are 100 mm long by 40 mm wide, scalloped or blunt toothed, diminishing towards the tip, with petioles 20 mm long.  Flowers are in racemes at or near the tip in a showy branched inflorescence.  Seeds dark brown, coarsely and closely verrucose.  Found in dry woods, thickets and clearings.  Appalachians from West Virginia and Kentucky to South Carolina and Alabama.

Scutellaria purpurascens Sw., 1788 (Scutellaria purpurascens var. heterophylla) REF Violet flowers 13 to 15 mm long on 3 to 8 cm racemes, multi stemmed 15 to 40 cm tall arising from a woody crown and clothed with fine hairs.  Leaves deltoid to rounded ovate 3 to 6 cm long, internodes 6 to 12 cm, margins coarsely sinuate dentate and mostly smooth surfaces with some vein hairs.  Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela and Brazil

Scutellaria purpurascens var. heterophylla Benth., 1848 (Scutellaria purpurascens) REF
Scutellaria purpureo-coerulea Pax & K. Hoffm., 1922 (Scutellaria amoena var. amoena) REF
Scutellaria purpureocardia C.Y. Wu, 1977 REF
Scutellaria pycnoclada Juz. (Scutellaria angrenica, Scutellaria iskanderi) REF
Scutellaria quadrilobulata Sun ex C. H. Hu, 1966 REF
Scutellaria quadrilobulata var. pilosa C. Y. Wu & S. Chow, 1977 REF
Scutellaria quadrilobulata var. quadrilobulata REF

Scutellaria racemosa Pers., 1807 (Scutellaria bonariensis, Scutellaria hastata, Scutellaria heterophylla, Scutellaria rojasii, Scutellaria rumicifolia) REF Violet, rose, or pallid flowers 5 to 7 mm long, 10 to 30 cm tall, usually with weak sprawling stems and slender spreading rhizomes.  Leaf forms diverse in size and shape (usually hastate to lanceolate) 10 to 40 mm long.  Flowers solitary in the axils of the median and upper diminished leaves.  Seeds fuscous and tuberculate.  Ranges from Vera Cruz to Valdivia, Chile.  Similar to S. minor and S. hastaefolia of Europe and S. leonardi of eastern USA.

Scutellaria raddeana Juz. (Scutellaria orientalis ssp. raddeana) REF
Scutellaria ramosissima M. Pop. REF
Scutellaria regeliana Nakai, 1921 REF
Scutellaria regeliana var. ikonnikovii (Juz.) C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li, 1977 (Scutellaria ikonnikovii) REF
Scutellaria regeliana var. regeliana (Scutellaria angustifolia, Scutellaria galericulata var. angustifolia) REF
Scutellaria rehderiana Diels, 1930 (Scutellaria kansuensis) REF

Scutellaria repens F. Ham. REF Small pale yellow flowers tinged with purple 20 mm long, low growing spreading to 60 cm, blooms September-October at 600 to 2000 meters elevation on rocky banks.  Leaves ovate to heart shaped 12 to 40 mm long, entirely coarsely toothed with petioles nearly as long, on slender spreading stems.  Native to Pakistan, Kashmir to Sikkim, and Burma.

Scutellaria resinosa Torr., 1827 REF Deep violet blue flowers 17 to 22 mm long with two white striped markings on the flaring lower lip, 16 to 23 cm tall, blooms April-September and often with many stems from a woody crown, forming a clump.  The gray green leaf blades are oval or roundish, 8 to 15 mm long on very short flat petioles, indistinctly toothed or even without a toothed leaf.  Resinous glands on the calyx, elsewhere having short and straight hairs.  Seeds black and minutely tuberculate.  Texas to Kansas (zone 4 to 5), often appearing with S. wrightii which has hairs that curl downwards.  Also see S. potosina.

Scutellaria resinosa var. brevifolia (A. Gray) Penland, 1924 (Scutellaria brevifolia) REF
Scutellaria reticulata C.Y. Wu & W.T. Wang, 1977 REF
Scutellaria rhomboidalis Grossh. (Scutellaria orientalis ssp. rhomboidalis) REF
Scutellaria rivularis Wall. ex Benth., 1829; Benth., 1831 (Scutellaria barbata) REF1-REF2
Scutellaria rojasii Briq., 1907 (Scutellaria racemosa) REF

Scutellaria rosei Fernald, 1900 REF Purple red flowers 25 mm long on 15 to 25 cm racemes, 60 to 70 cm tall from several simple upright stems covered with short hairs which are capitate glandular in the upper parts.  Leaves broadly ovate, 5 to 6 cm long by 4 cm wide, short pointed tip and cordate base, margins coarsely sinuate dentate, surfaces lightly scattered with short hairs and paler underside, petioles 2 to 3 mm long.  Western Mexico.

Scutellaria roseo-cyanea Rose flowers 20 to 25 mm long with dark blue lower lip on 30 cm racemes, 1 meter tall hairy stems with glandular hairs in the upper parts.  Leaves soft 4 to 12 cm long by 3 to 10 cm wide, cordate with short pointed tip, sinuate dentate margins, upper surface with a few short hairs and the underside paler with soft hairs, on petioles 2 to 6 cm long.  Papillose seeds.  Colombia.

Scutellaria rubicunda Willdenow & Schrank, 1822; Hornem. REF1-REF2 Light violet pink flowers (occasionally white), 40 cm tall with glabrous leaves, Zone 6.   Italy, Balkans.
Scutellaria rubicunda ssp. arabica (Jaud. & Spach) Podl., 1982 (Scutellaria arabica ?) REF
Scutellaria rubicunda ssp. brevibrac Found in the Antalya and Mugla regions of Turkey.
Scutellaria rubicunda ssp. linaeana (Caruel) Rech. REF
Scutellaria rubicunda ssp. pamosula Found in the Icel region of Turkey.

Scutellaria rubicunda var. subvelutina  Small to medium sized pale reddish-violet flowers on shrubby spreading plant with fairly open type of growth, at least 30 cm tall with wide spreading and branching growth habit.  Good for cascading over walls, but may become too large for smaller gardens.  Italy, Balkans (zone 6).

Scutellaria rubromaculata Juz. & Vved. REF
Scutellaria rugosa A.W. Wood, 1847 (Scutellaria ovata ssp. rugosa, Scutellaria ovata var. rugosa) REF
Scutellaria rumicifolia Kunth, 1817 (Scutellaria racemosa) REF
Scutellaria rupestris ssp. adenotricha  Small leafed semi-spreading herbaceous sub-shrub to 20 cm.  Flowers are similar to Scutellaria altissima but smaller in size and with more purple tinted blue tones.  Will bloom two or three times during the season from fresh new growth.  Best grown directly in the garden rather than in planters.  Easily self propagates from seed but may die to rot in areas with very wet winter climates.

Scutellaria russelioides Epling, 1939 REF Dark violet flowers 23 mm long, 40 to 50 cm tall on strict stems branched near the upper areas, covered with dense curled hairs.  Leaves deltoid, 30 to 35 mm long, obtuse near the base, on 3 to 4 mm petioles.  Margins coarsely dentate near the base and becoming smooth towards the tip, surfaces sparsely covered with coarse hairs.  Western coast of Mexico.

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